Swimming capacity of the fossil penguin Inkayacu paracasensis Clarke, 2010 (Aves: Spheniscidae) with the basal or standard metabolic rate
Departamento de Paleontología de Vertebrados, Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima 11, Perú. email@example.com
The aim of the study is to calculate the swimming capability of the extinct penguin Inkayacu paracasensis in terms of estimated maximum swimming speed, based on a theoretical biomechanical (fluid mechanics) method, which was previously applied to Mesozoic marine reptiles and living cetaceans. For comparison purposes, this parameter is also calculated for the African black-footed penguin Spheniscus demersus and the Emperor penguin Aptenodytes forsteri. Results show an estimated maximum speed of 2.8-3.4 m/s, 2.8-3.5 m/s and 3.0-3.7 m/s for the three species respectively. Studies with species in captivity and in the wild allows corroborating the estimated values for the living species, with a maximum error of about 10% in the case of A. forsteri. Therefore, the Emperor penguin and Inkayacu have developed similar swimming velocities. It is suggested that wing beat frequency, stride length and gliding phases are similar in both large bodied species, in contrast of the small ones. In addition, it is also analyzed the influence of the flow model (Reynold ́s number) in the three penguin species. It is suggested that skull morphology of Inkayacu could be an advantage in locomotion with respect of the Emperor penguin.
Key words: Inkayacu paracasensis, Aptenodytes forsteri, maximum velocity, Reynold ́s number, biomechanics.
How to cite: Meza-Vélez, I. 2020. Capacidad de nado del pingüino fósil Inkayacu paracasensis Clarke, 2010 (Aves: Spheniscidae) con la tasa metabólica basal o estándar. [Swimming capacity of the fossil penguin Inkayacu paracasensis Clarke, 2010 (Aves: Spheniscidae) with the basal or standard metabolic rate]. Spanish Journal of Palaeontology, 35 (2), 185-196.
Received 20 August 2019, Accepted 2 June 2020, Published 31 December 2020